First Revised Estimates of National Income, Consumption Expenditure, Saving and Capital Formation, 2015-16
The Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has released the First Revised Estimates of National Income, Consumption Expenditure, Saving and Capital Formation for the financial year 2015-16 (with Base Year 2011-12) as per the revision policy*. Second Revised Estimates for the year 2014-15 and Third Revised Estimates for the years 2012-13 and 2013-14 have also been released as per the calendar of revision of base year*. Estimates for the year 2011-12 remain unchanged.
- The First Revised Estimates for the year 2015-16 have been compiled using industry-wise/institution-wise detailed information instead of using the benchmark-indicator method employed at the time of release of Provisional Estimates on 31st May, 2016. The estimates of GDP and other aggregates for the years 2012-13 to 2014-15 have also undergone revision due to use of latest available data on agricultural production; industrial production especially those based on the provisional results of Annual Survey of Industries (ASI): 2014-15 and final results of ASI: 2013-14; government expenditure (replacing Revised Estimates with Actuals for the year 2014-15) and also more comprehensive data available from various source agencies and State/UT Directorates of Economics and Statistics.
- The salient features of the estimates at aggregate level are indicated below:
Gross Domestic Product
- Nominal GDP or GDP at current prices for the year 2015-16 is estimated as Rs. 136.75 lakh crore while that for the year 2014-15 is estimated as Rs. 124.34 lakh crore, exhibiting a growth of 10.0 per cent during 2015-16 as against 10.7 per cent during 2014-15.
- Real GDP or GDP at constant (2011-12) prices for the years 2015-16 and 2014-15 stands at Rs. 113.58 lakh crore and Rs. 105.23 lakh crore, respectively, showing growth of 7.9 per cent during 2015-16 and 7.2 per cent during 2014-15.
- The changes in the Gross Value Added (GVA) at basic prices in different sectors of the economy at current and constant (2011-12) prices are presented in Statements 4.1 and 4.2 respectively. At the aggregate level, nominal GVA at basic prices increased by 8.6 per cent during 2015-16 as against 10.7 per cent during 2014-15. In terms of real GVA, i.e., GVA at constant (2011-12) basic prices, there has been a growth of 7.8 per cent in 2015-16, as against growth of 6.9 per cent in 2014-15.
- The shares of different sectors of the economy in terms of overall GVA during 2011-12 to 2015-16 and corresponding annual growth rates are mentioned below:
|Sector||Percentage share in GVA at current prices||Percentage change in GVA at constant (2011-12) prices over the previous year|
|Aggregate GVA (Rs. in lakh crore)|
|at current prices||at constant prices|
- The growth in real GVA during 2015-16 has been higher than that in 2014-15 mainly due to higher growth in ‘agriculture, forestry & fishing’ (0.8%), ‘manufacturing’ (10.6%), ‘trade, repair, hotels & restaurants’ (11.6%), ‘transport, storage, communication & services related to broadcasting’ (9.1%) and ‘real estate, ownership of dwelling & professional services’ (12.6%), as may be seen from Statement 4.2. During 2015-16, at constant prices, the growth rates of primary (comprising agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining & quarrying), secondary (comprising manufacturing, electricity, gas, water supply & other utility services, and construction) and tertiary (services) sectors have been estimated as 2.6 per cent, 7.8 per cent and 9.8 as against a growth of 1.8 per cent, 6.1 per cent and 9.5 per cent, respectively, in the previous year.
Net National Income
- Nominal Net National Income (NNI) at current prices for the year 2015-16 stands at Rs. 120.83 lakh crore as against Rs. 109.61 lakh crore in 2014-15, showing an increase of 10.2 per cent during 2015-16 as against an increase of 10.7 per cent in the previous year.
Gross National Disposable Income
- Gross National Disposable Income (GNDI) at current prices is estimated as Rs. 139.29 lakh crore for the year 2015-16, while the estimate for the year 2014-15 stands at Rs. 126.91 lakh crore, showing a growth of 9.7 per cent as against 10.4 per cent in the year 2014-15.
- Gross Saving during 2015-16 is estimated as Rs. 44.05 lakh crore as against Rs. 40.98 lakh crore during 2014-15. Rate of Gross Saving to GNDI for the year 2015-16 is estimated as 31.6 per cent as against 32.3 per cent, estimated for 2014-15.
- The highest contributor to Gross Saving is the household sector, with a share of 59.2 per cent in the year 2015-16. However, the share has declined from 62.0 per cent in 2014-15 to 59.2 per cent in 2015-16. This decline can be attributed to decline in household savings in physical assets, which has declined from Rs. 15.78 lakh crore in 2014-15 to Rs. 14.84 lakh crore in 2015-16. On the other hand, the share of Non-Financial Corporations has increased from 34.3 per cent in 2014-15 to 37.3 per cent in 2015-16. The share of Financial Corporations decreased from 8.3 per cent in 2014-15 to 6.5 per cent in 2015-16, while the dis-saving of General Government has decreased from 4.6 per cent of Gross Saving in 2014-15 to 3.1 per cent in 2015-16.
- Gross Capital Formation (GCF) at current and constant prices is estimated by two approaches :– (i) through flow of funds, derived as Gross Saving plus net capital inflow from abroad; and (ii) by the commodity flow approach, derived by the type of assets. The estimates of GCF through the flow of funds approach are treated as the firmer estimates, and the difference between the two approaches is taken as “errors and omissions”. However, GCF by industry of use and by institutional sectors does not include “valuables”, and therefore, these estimates are lower than the estimates available from commodity flow approach.
- Gross Capital Formation (GCF) at current prices is estimated as Rs. 45.45 lakh crore for the year 2015-16 as compared to Rs. 42.58 lakh crore during 2014-15. The rate of GCF to GDP declined from 34.2 per cent during 2014-15 to 33.2 per cent in the year 2015-16. The rate of GCF excluding valuables to GDP stands at 32.6 per cent and 31.8 per cent for the years 2014-15 and 2015-16 respectively. The rate of capital formation in the years 2011-12 to 2015-16 has been higher than the rate of saving because of net capital inflow from Rest of the World (ROW).
- In terms of the share to the total GCF (at current prices), the highest contributor is Non-Financial Corporations, with the share rising steadily from 45.7 per cent in 2011-12 to 51.3 per cent in 2015-16 (Statement 9). Share of household sector in GCF is also significant, but has declined from 43.4 per cent in 2011-12 to 34.7 per cent in 2015-16. The share of General Government in GCF has increased from 9.6 per cent in 2011-12 to 12.4 per cent in 2015-16.
- Within the Gross Capital Formation at current prices, the Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) amounted to Rs. 39.89 lakh crore in 2015-16 as against Rs. 37.62 lakh crore in 2014-15. The rate of GFCF to GDP at current prices was 29.2 per cent in 2015-16 as compared to 30.3 per cent in 2014-15. The change in stocks of inventories, at current prices, increased from Rs. 2.78 lakh crore in 2014-15 to Rs. 2.92 lakh crore in 2015-16, while the valuables decreased from Rs. 2.09 lakh crore in 2014-15 to Rs. 1.97 lakh crore in 2015-16.
- The rate of Gross Capital Formation to GDP at constant (2011-12) prices has decreased from 35.8 per cent in 2014-15 to 35.5 per cent in 2015-16.
- Private Final Consumption Expenditure (PFCE) at current prices is estimated at Rs. 79.00 lakh crore for the year 2015-16 as against Rs. 72.73 lakh crore in 2014-15. In relation to GDP, the rates of PFCE at current prices during 2014-15 and 2015-16 are estimated at 58.5 per cent and 57.8 per cent respectively.
- At constant (2011-12) prices, the PFCE is estimated as Rs. 59.31 lakh crore and Rs. 63.66 lakh crore, respectively for the years 2014-15 and 2015-16. The corresponding rates of PFCE to GDP for the years 2014-15 and 2015-16 are 56.4 per cent and 56.1 per cent respectively.
- Government Final Consumption Expenditure (GFCE) at current prices is estimated as Rs. 14.12 lakh crore for the year 2015-16 as against Rs. 12.98 lakh crore during 2014-15. At constant (2011-12) prices, the estimates of GFCE for the years 2014-15 and 2015-16 stand at Rs. 10.72 lakh crore and Rs. 11.03 lakh crore respectively.
Estimates at per capita level
- Per Capita Income, i.e., Per Capita Net National Income at current prices, is estimated as Rs. 86,513 and Rs. 94,178 respectively for the years 2014-15 and 2015-16. Correspondingly, Per Capita PFCE at current prices, for the years 2014-15 and 2015-16 is estimated at Rs. 57,402 and Rs. 61,571 respectively.
- More details of these estimates are available in Statements 1-9 appended to this Press Note.
Summary of Revision in the GDP Estimates
- The use of latest available data from various agencies have resulted in some changes in both the levels of GVA and growth estimates for the years 2012-13 to 2015-16. The reasons for revision in the estimates of the years 2012-13 to 2014-15, released on 29.01.2016 are mentioned in the Annexure.
Revision in the estimates of 2015-16:
24. The following statement gives the major reasons for variation between the Provisional Estimates (released in May 2016) and the First Revised Estimates of GVA for 2015-16.
|Sector||GVA growth in 2015-16||Major reasons for variation|
|Prov. Estimate, May 2016||First Revised Estimate,|
|Primary[i]||2.2||2.6||Revision in estimates of production of some crops, livestock products, fish and forestry products; and use of annual financial reports of public & private sector companies in place of IIP in the case of ‘mining & quarrying’.|
|Secondary[ii]||7.4||7.8||Actual analysis of financial reports of a larger sample of public & private sector companies instead of key financial indicators derived from advance filings of a small sample of Companies used earlier.|
|Tertiary[iii]||8.9||9.8||Use of Revised Estimates of sales tax and other items in central & state government budget documents instead of Budget Estimates; and replacement of key financial indicators derived from advance filings of a small sample of Companies with actual analysis of financial reports of a larger sample of public & private sector companies.|
- The upcoming releases on GDP are indicated below:
a) Second Advance Estimates for the year 2016-17, along with quarterly estimates for Q1 (April-June), Q2 (July-September) and Q3 (October-December) of 2016-17 on February 28, 2017; and
b) Provisional Estimates for the year 2016-17, along with estimates for all the four quarters of the year on May 31, 2017.
NOTES ON THE STATEMENTS
- List of Statements
- Statement 1.1: Key aggregates of national accounts at current prices
- Statement 1.2: Key aggregates of national accounts at constant (2011-12) prices
- Statement 2: Per Capita Income, Product and Final Consumption
- Statement 3.1: Output by economic activity and Capital Formation by industry of use at current prices
- Statement 3.2: Output by economic activity and Capital Formation by industry of use at constant (2011-12) prices
- Statement 4.1: Gross Value Added by economic activity at current basic prices
- Statement 4.2: Gross Value Added by economic activity at constant (2011-12) basic prices
- Statement 5: Finances for Gross Capital Formation
- Statement 6.1: Gross Capital Formation by industry of use at current prices
- Statement 6.2: Gross Capital Formation by industry of use at constant (2011-12) prices
- Statement 7.1: Gross Fixed Capital Formation by asset & institutional sector at current prices
- Statement 7.2: Gross Fixed Capital Formation by asset & institutional sector at constant (2011-12) prices
- Statement 8.1: Private Final Consumption Expenditure at Current Prices
- Statement 8.2: Private Final Consumption Expenditure at Constant (2011-12) Prices
- Statement 9: Institutional Sectors – Key economic indicators at current prices
Annexure: Reasons for revision in the estimates of the years 2012-13 to 2014-15
NOTES ON THE STATEMENTS
ACRONYMS USED IN THE PRESS RELEASE
CE: Compensation of Employees
CFC: Consumption of Fixed Capital
CIS: Changes in Stock
GCF: Gross Capital Formation
GDI: Gross Disposable Income
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
GFCE: Government Final Consumption Expenditure
GFCF: Gross Fixed Capital Formation
GNDI: Gross National Disposable Income
GNI: Gross National Income
GVA: Gross Value Added
MI: Mixed Income
NDP: Net Domestic Product
NNDI: Net National Disposable Income
NNI: Net National Income
OS: Operating Surplus
PFCE: Private Final Consumption Expenditure
ROW: Rest of the World
- GVA at basic prices = CE + OS/MI + CFC + Production taxes less Production subsidies
- GDP = ∑ GVA at basic prices + Product taxes – Product subsidies
- NDP/NNI = GDP/GNI – CFC
- GNI = GDP + Net primary income from ROW (Receipts less payments)
- Primary Incomes = CE + Property and Entrepreneurial Income
- NNDI =NNI + other current transfers from ROW, net (Receipts less payments)
- GNDI = NNDI + CFC = GNI + other current transfers from ROW, net (Receipts less payments)
- Gross Capital Formation= Gross Savings+ Net Capital Inflow from ROW
- GCF = GFCF + CIS + Valuables + “Errors and Omissions”
- Gross Disposable Income of Govt. = GFCE + Gross Saving of General Government
- Gross Disposable Income (GDI) of Households = GNDI – GDI of Govt. – Gross Savings of All Corporations
REMARKS ON THE FORMULAE:
Production taxes or subsidies are paid or received with relation to production and are independent of the volume of actual production. Some examples are:
Production Taxes – Land Revenues, Stamps and Registration fees and Tax on profession
Production Subsidies – Subsidies to Railways, Subsidies to village and small industries
Product taxes or subsidies are paid or received on per unit of product. Some examples are:
Product Taxes: Excise Tax, Sales tax, Service Tax and Import and Export duties
Product Subsidies: Food, Petroleum and fertilizer subsidies
Other Current Transfers refers to current transfers other than the primary incomes
Estimate of GCF derived from this formula is taken as the “firmer” estimate and the difference between this estimate and the sum of GFCF, CIS and valuables is taken as “errors and omissions”, as referred in 9 above.
* Available on www.mospi.gov.in
[i] Primary indicates agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining & quarrying industries
[ii] Secondary indicates manufacturing, electricity, gas, water supply & other utility services and construction
[iii] Tertiary indicates all services